Common Types of Cancers in India (by Age Group and Gender)

Common Types of Cancers in India (by Age Group and Gender)

February 03, 2018

In order that cancer can be detected in as an early stage as possible, it is important that everyone is well aware of possible signs, available treatment and preventive measures available to them and their family members. Kindly go through the tabulated information below showcasing all key points of impact when it comes to cancer and your loved ones.


 

CHILDREN / TEENAGERS
(up to 19 years)

both Male & Female

TYPE OF CANCER RISK FACTORS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES SYMPTOMS CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

RELEVANT FACTS AND SURVIVAL RATE

(5 Years of Diagnosis)

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMARKS
Leukemia (Blood Cancer) (Types: ALL & AML) Not known. Genetic mutation is generally responsible Fever, Weakness, Fatigue, bone or joint pains, bleeding under the skin, swollen lymph glands in the neck or abdomen Chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant may be required in severe cases of AML Recent trends of cure through cancer treatment are promising. Over 80% survival rate Early diagnosis can help in faster recovery and increases chances of survival and complete cure
Tumors of the Brain and central nervous system Not completely known. Family history of certain genetic disorders, exposure to harmful radiation and weak immunity from birth are some risk factors Vomiting, seizures, weakness, slurred speech, difficulty in movement, lack of coordination, Headache, enlarged head in infants Chemotherapy or radiation therapy, surgical removal of tumour Brain cancer treatments have advanced significantly in recent period. Around 65% survival rate Cannot be prevented by any precautionary measure. Early diagnosis can increase chances of survival
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Genetic mutation due to environmental pollution Lumps under the skin, swollen abdomen, reduced appetite, Fever, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, night sweats Chemotherapy or radiation therapy, Bone marrow transplant might be required in progressed cases Cure and survival rate is 70 to 80% Children should be protected from extensive exposure to pollution

 

ADULTS
(21 to 60 years)

WOMEN


TYPE OF CANCER
RISK FACTORS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES
SYMPTOMS CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

RELEVANT FACTS AND SURVIVAL RATE

(5 Years of Diagnosis)

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMARKS
Breast Cancer Genetic mutations inherited from family (mother). Risk factors include obesity, poor diet habits, smoking, lack of physical activity, Postmenopausal hormonal imbalances and late first pregnancy One or more lumps in breast, painless hard mass or swelling at the side of breast, nipple retraction (inward), unnatural discharge from nipples (often blood-stained), lump in the armpit, unexplained changes in shape/sizes of breast Surgical removal or partial on entire affected breast (lumpectomy and mastectomy) , chemotherapy, radiation therapy and teletherapy Survival rate is around 60% which is lesser than advanced countries Quitting harmful habits like smoking or drinking, regular exercise, breastfeeding, and frequent check ups can prevent breast cancer
Cervical Cancer Smoking, Family history, Sexually transmitted diseases (HPV), Excessive use of birth control pills, multiple sexual partners Pain in the pelvic region, Abnormal vaginal bleeding or vaginal discharge, Unexplained pain during sexual intercourse. Irregular periods, Vaginal dryness, Hot flushes, Osteoporosis, Urinary incontinence may be early signs Surgery (removal of uterus/cervix), chemotherapy and radiation are the most practiced cervical cancer treatment methods India has world’s highest cervical cancer deaths. However, timely diagnosis and ongoing improvements in cancer treatment methods have increased the survival rate to around 47% Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in girls around 12 years of age, maintaining personal hygiene especially genital hygiene, using protection during sexual intercourse, controlling the use of birth control pills, limited number of pregnancies, quitting smoking can prevent cervical cancer. Regular PAP smear test is recommended especially in menopausal women
Colorectal Cancer Some causative factors include increasing age (above 50 years), genetic mutation, inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease or colitis, family history of colorectal polyps. Risk factors are obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, drinking and poor diet low in vegetables and fruits Bloody stool, constipation or diarrhoea, rectal pain, weakness, decreased appetite and rapid weight loss Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and local ablative therapy Survival rate is 37% which is lower compared to advanced countries and even other East Asian countries Practising healthy dietary habits, avoiding fat intake, quitting or limiting smoking and drinking, regular exercise can prevent colorectal cancer
Ovarian Cancer Family history of colon cancer, prostate cancer or uterine cancers increases the risk Most patients are detected at 3rd or 4th stage since the symptoms are silent or similar to several other common diseases. Early symptoms include pelvic and abdominal pain, back pain, indigestion/heartburn, reduced appetite, increased urination urge, pain during sexual intercourse, constipation. Advanced symptoms are nausea, fatigue and weight loss Surgery (hysterectomy), chemotherapy and radiation therapy Survival rate is around 45% Regular monitoring of blood calcium levels, contraceptive pills, tubal ligation (sterilization by surgical clamping of fallopian tubes) and regular check ups help prevent ovarian cancer

 

MEN

TYPE OF CANCER
RISK FACTORS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES
SYMPTOMS CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

RELEVANT FACTS AND SURVIVAL RATE
(5 Years of Diagnosis)

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMARKS
Mouth or Oral Cancer Chewing of tobacco (gutkha, pan) or smoking are the main causes. Family history of oral cancer, Viral infections like HPV, poor oral hygiene, prolonged exposure to sunlight are also other causes of oral cancer Pain in mouth, face and ears which increases during eating or swallowing, mouth ulcers, white/red plaques, bad breath, enlarged lymph nodes Mostly surgery (removal of larynx, neck tissues or parts of tongue) is recommended. Radiation therapy is also common. Chemotherapy is advised in some cases If diagnosed in early stages, the survival rate is about 81%. However, if detected in advanced stages, survival rates reduce to around 45% Quitting tobacco in all forms (chewing/ smoking), limiting alcohol consumption, avoiding prolonged sunlight exposure and eating diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help prevent oral cancer
Lung Cancer Smoking (both active and passive smoking) is the primary cause of lung cancer. Exposure to chemical carcinogens like asbestos, arsenic, radon gas ( in industrial workers) and family history of lung cancer Persistent coughs often with blood, Shortness of breath, Chest pain, hoarse voice, Unexplained weight loss, Bone pain and Headache Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted drug therapy are main lung cancer treatments including surgery in many cases If detected at early stage, the 5-year survival rate is around 54% Quitting smoking, avoiding pollution, precautionary measures for working in industrial zones, regular exercise and properly balanced diet can prevent occurence of lung cancer
Stomach or Gastric Cancer Smoking, obesity, having Type A-blood, infection by Epstein Barr virus, genetic mutations and working in coal, rubber or asbestos factories are common risk factors Indigestion, Feeling bloated after a meal, heartburn, nausea, loss of appetite. Advanced symptoms may include stomach pain, blood in stool, weight loss, vomiting, yellowish eyes/skin Surgery, medication, radiation, and chemotherapy The survival rate is lower compared to other countries at around 20% Maintaining balanced diet, regular physical activity and exercise, regulating a proper body weight can reduce chances of stomach cancer
Colorectal Cancer Some causative factors include increasing age (above 50 years), genetic mutation, inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease or colitis, family history of colorectal polyps. Risk factors are obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, drinking and poor diet low in vegetables and fruits Bloody stool, constipation or diarrhoea, rectal pain, weakness, decreased appetite and rapid weight loss Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and local ablative therapy Survival rate is 37% which is lower compared to advanced countries and even other East Asian countries Practising healthy dietary habits, avoiding fat intake, quitting or limiting smoking and drinking, regular exercise can prevent colorectal cancer

 

SENIORS
(Above 60 years)

MEN

TYPE OF CANCER RISK FACTORS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES SYMPTOMS CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

RELEVANT FACTS AND SURVIVAL RATE
(5 Years of Diagnosis)

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMARKS
Prostate Cancer Age, family history, genetic mutation, obesity, diets rich in fatty foods and increased calcium and dairy intake are main risk factors of prostate cancer Often it doesn’t show any distinct symptoms. However urinary incontinence, frequent urination especially at night are common signs In cases of prostate cancer with slow growth palliative care and monitoring is advised. In progressed cases, radiation therapy, surgery, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are common prostate cancer treatments Survival rate is around 64% Eating a low-fat diet rich in plant products, more consumption of fish and maintaining a healthy body weight are ways to avoid prostate cancer

 


BOTH MEN AND WOMEN

TYPE OF CANCER RISK FACTORS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES SYMPTOMS CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

RELEVANT FACTS AND SURVIVAL RATE
(5 Years of Diagnosis)

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMARKS
Prostate Cancer Causes are not completely known. Risk factors include increasing age, inherited gene mutations, history of colorectal polyps, Crohn’s disease & ulcerative colitis, high fat dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, obesity, smoking and drinking Diarrhoea or constipation, blood in stool, persistent abdominal pain and discomfort, fatigue, unexplained weight loss Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy Survival rate is low at 37% Healthy diet habits rich in fiber, regular exercise, limiting smoking and drinking can reduce risk of intestinal cancer

Further reading: Kick Cancer before it hurts you!


By Sayantani Nath

Guest Author and Student of Biology




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